The NKX2-1 transcription factor, a regulator of normal lung development, is the most significantly amplified gene in human lung adenocarcinoma. To study the transcriptional impact of NKX2-1 amplification, we generated an expression signature associated with NKX2-1 amplification in human lung adenocarcinoma and analyzed DNA-binding sites of NKX2-1 by genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation. Integration of these expression and cistromic analyses identified LMO3, itself encoding a transcription regulator, as a candidate direct transcriptional target of NKX2-1. Further cistromic and overexpression analyses indicated that NKX2-1 can cooperate with the forkhead box transcription factor FOXA1 to regulate LMO3 gene expression. RNAi analysis of NKX2-1-amplified cells compared with nonamplified cells demonstrated that LMO3 mediates cell survival downstream from NKX2-1. Our findings provide new insight into the transcriptional regulatory network of NKX2-1 and suggest that LMO3 is a transcriptional signal transducer in NKX2-1-amplified lung adenocarcinomas.