The purpose of this cross-sectional study based on the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is to examine demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and reproductive characteristics that may distinguish users and non-users of insulin sensitizing agents among the US diabetic, borderline diabetic and non-diabetic women. Use of insulin-sensitizing agents was evaluated among 19,579 (3882 diabetic, 387 borderline diabetic and 15,310 non-diabetic) women. Overall, 2% of women in the study sample were users of insulin-sensitizers, including metformin, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed for predictors of insulin-sensitizer use according to diabetic status. In the overall sample, being younger or diabetic were the only factors associated with an increased odds of using insulin-sensitizing agents, after adjustment of confounders. Among diabetics, use of insulin-sensitizing agents was inversely related to age, but not other factors in the multivariable model. Among borderline and non-diabetics, body mass index (BMI) was the only predictor that remained significantly associated with the use of insulin-sensitizing agents after controlling for confounders. In conclusion, the main predictors of insulin-sensitizer use are young age and diabetic status in all women, young age in diabetic women and high BMI in borderline and non-diabetic women.