Lysine deacetylation by the NAD(+)-dependent family of sirtuins has been recognized as an important post-translational modification regulating a wide range of cellular processes. These lysine deacetylases have attracted much interest based on their ability to promote survival in response to stress. Sirtuins require NAD(+) for their enzymatic activity, suggesting that these enzymes may represent molecular links between cell metabolism and several human disorders, including diabetes and cancer. Inflammation represents a pathological situation with clear connections to metabolism and aging in humans, raising the possibility that sirtuins may also play an important role during a normal and/or a pathological immune response. A growing body of data has confirmed the immunomodulatory properties of sirtuins, although often with contrasting and opposing conclusions. These observations will be summarized herein and the possible strategies that may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat inflammation briefly discussed.