A Laterally Acquired Galactose Oxidase-Like Gene Is Required for Aerial Development During Osmotic Stress in Streptomyces Coelicolor

PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54112. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054112. Epub 2013 Jan 11.


Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that most Actinobacterial orthologs of S. coelicolor SCO2837, encoding a metal-dependent galactose oxidase-like protein, are found within Streptomyces and were probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer from fungi. Disruption of SCO2837 (glxA) caused a conditional bld phenotype that could not be reversed by extracellular complementation. Studies aimed at characterising the regulation of expression of glxA showed that it is not a target for other bld genes. We provide evidence that glxA is required for osmotic adaptation, although independently from the known osmotic stress response element SigB. glxA has been predicted to be part of an operon with the transcription unit comprising the upstream cslA gene and glxA. However, both phenotypic and expression studies indicate that it is also expressed from an independent promoter region internal to cslA. GlxA displays an in situ localisation pattern similar to that one observed for CslA at hyphal tips, but localisation of the former is independent of the latter. The functional role of GlxA in relation to CslA is discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Actinobacteria / genetics
  • Actinobacteria / metabolism
  • Aerobiosis / genetics
  • Aerobiosis / physiology
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Galactose Oxidase / genetics*
  • Galactose Oxidase / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
  • Gene Transfer, Horizontal*
  • Mutation
  • Osmosis
  • Osmotic Pressure*
  • Phylogeny
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Sigma Factor / genetics
  • Sigma Factor / metabolism
  • Streptomyces coelicolor* / genetics
  • Streptomyces coelicolor* / metabolism


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • SigB protein, Bacteria
  • Sigma Factor
  • Galactose Oxidase