Cigarette smoking and onset of mood and anxiety disorders

Am J Public Health. 2013 Sep;103(9):1656-65. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300911. Epub 2013 Jan 17.


Objectives: We examined the association between regular cigarette smoking and new onset of mood and anxiety disorders.

Methods: We used logistic regression analysis to detect associations between regular smoking and new-onset disorders during the 3-year follow-up among 34 653 participants in the longitudinal US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001-2005). We used instrumental variable methods to assess the appropriateness of these models.

Results: Regular smoking was associated with an increased risk of new onset of mood and anxiety disorders in multivariable analyses (Fdf = 5,61 = 11.73; P < .001). Participants who smoked a larger number of cigarettes daily displayed a trend toward greater likelihood of new-onset disorders. Age moderated the association of smoking with most new-onset disorders. The association was mostly statistically significant and generally stronger in participants aged 18 to 49 years but was smaller and mostly nonsignificant in older adults.

Conclusions: Our finding of a stronger association between regular cigarette smoking and increased risk of new-onset mood and anxiety disorders among younger adults suggest the need for vigorous antismoking campaigns and policy initiatives targeting this age group.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Anxiety Disorders / etiology*
  • Anxiety Disorders / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mood Disorders / etiology*
  • Mood Disorders / psychology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult