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Review
. 2013 Apr;13(4):527-40.
doi: 10.1517/14712598.2013.756468. Epub 2013 Jan 17.

Biomaterials and Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering

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Free PMC article
Review

Biomaterials and Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering

Zhanpeng Zhang et al. Expert Opin Biol Ther. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Introduction: Organ failure and tissue loss are challenging health issues due to widespread injury, the lack of organs for transplantation and limitations of conventional artificial implants. The field of tissue engineering aims to provide alternative living substitutes that restore, maintain or improve tissue function.

Areas covered: In this paper, a wide range of porous scaffolds are reviewed, with an emphasis on phase-separation techniques that generate advantageous nanofibrous 3D scaffolds for stem cell-based tissue engineering applications. In addition, methods for presentation and delivery of bioactive molecules to mimic the properties of stem cell niches are summarized. Recent progress in using these bioinstructive scaffolds to support stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration is also presented.

Expert opinion: Stem cells have great clinical potential because of their capability to differentiate into multiple cell types. Biomaterials have served as artificial extracellular environments to regulate stem cell behavior. Biomaterials with various physical, mechanical and chemical properties can be designed to control stem cell development for regeneration.

Conclusion: The research at the interface of stem cell biology and biomaterials has made and will continue to make exciting advances in tissue engineering.

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of interest:

The authors state no conflict of interest and have received no payment in preparation of this manuscript.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of: a PLLA NF scaffold prepared from 2.5% PLLA/THF solution at a phase separation temperature of 8 °C with magnification of 500× (A) and 20 000× (B); 3D macroporous NF PLLA scaffolds; (C) prepared from sugar fiber template leaching and phase separation; (D) prepared from SFF and phase separation; and (E), (F) prepared from sugar sphere template leaching and phase separation. (A) (B) From Ma and Zhang, Copyright © 1999 by John Wiley & Sons. Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons. (C) From Zhang and Ma, Copyright © 2000 by John Wiley & Sons. (D) From Chen et al., Copyright © 2006 by Elsevier. Reprinted with permission of Elsevier. (E), (F) From Wei and Ma, Copyright © 2006 by John Wiley & Sons. Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons.
Figure 2
Figure 2
NF scaffolds created from 3D medical images and a phase-separation technique. A) human ear template reconstructed from histological sections; B) resulting NF scaffold of the human ear (scale bar: 10 mm); C) the nanofibrous pore wall morphology (scale bar: 5µm). From Chen et al., Copyright © 2006 by Elsevier. Reprinted with permission of Elsevier.
Figure 3
Figure 3
SEM micrographs at two different magnifications (A, B) and laser scanning confocal micrograph (C) of PLGA nanosphere-immobilized PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds. FITC-labeled bovine serum albumin was encapsulated in PLGA nanospheres, showing green emission under confocal microscopy (C). From Wei et al., Copyright©2006 by Elsevier. Reprinted with permission of Elsevier.
Figure 4
Figure 4
SEM micrographs of (A) NF matrix, scale bar-10µm; (B) solid film, scale bar=10µm; and (C) D3 mouse ES cells on NF matrix and solid film 12 hours after seeding, scale bar=5um. From Smith et al., Copyright©2009 by Mary Ann Liebert. Reprinted with permission of Mary Ann Liebert.
Figure 5
Figure 5
hMSCs culture on 3D NF PLLA scaffold. Immunohistochemical type II collagen stain after constructs cultured for 6 weeks (A) without TGF-β1 or (B) with TGF-β1, showing much more type II collagen deposition with TGF- β1, scale bar=100um; (C,D) SEM micrographs of hMSCs after 24 hours of culture showing aggregation within macropores. From Hu et al., Copyright©2009 by Elsevier. Reprinted with permission of Elsevier.

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