Gingival crevicular fluid, serum levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin, and interleukin-17 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis and with periodontal disease

J Periodontol. 2013 Nov;84(11):1627-37. doi: 10.1902/jop.2013.120595. Epub 2013 Jan 17.


Background: This study is performed to evaluate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum levels of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL), interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17E, IL-17F, IL-17A/F, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoporosis (OPR), and those who are systemically healthy (SH), all with periodontal disease.

Methods: GCF and serum samples were obtained before any periodontal intervention from 17 women with RA, 19 with OPR, and 13 who were SH with periodontitis. Full-mouth clinical periodontal measurements were recorded. sRANKL, OPG, and IL-17 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Clinical periodontal measurements were similar in the three study groups. Although the total amounts of GCF albumin, OPG, IL-17A, and IL-17A/F were similar in the study groups, there were statistically significant differences in GCF concentrations of sRANKL, OPG, IL-17A, IL-17E, IL-17F, and IL-17A/F. The sRANKL/OPG ratios were significantly higher in the RA group than in the OPR and SH groups (P <0.05). Serum sRANKL, sRANKL/OPG, and IL-17A/IL-17E ratios were significantly higher, whereas OPG concentrations were significantly lower in the RA group compared to other groups (P <0.05). Serum IL-17A concentrations were significantly higher in the RA and OPR groups than in the SH group (P <0.05).

Conclusion: Increased inflammatory mediator levels in patients with RA, despite the long-term use of various anti-inflammatory drugs, suggest that these patients may have a propensity to overproduce these inflammatory mediators.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Albumins / analysis
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / blood
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / analysis
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood
  • Interleukin-17 / analysis*
  • Interleukin-17 / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / blood
  • Osteoporosis / metabolism*
  • Osteoprotegerin / analysis*
  • Osteoprotegerin / blood
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / classification
  • Periodontal Index
  • Periodontal Pocket / classification
  • Periodontitis / blood
  • Periodontitis / metabolism*
  • RANK Ligand / analysis*
  • RANK Ligand / blood


  • Albumins
  • IL17A protein, human
  • IL17F protein, human
  • IL25 protein, human
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interleukin-17
  • Osteoprotegerin
  • RANK Ligand
  • TNFSF11 protein, human