The cationic, ortho Mn(III) N-alkylpyridylporphyrins (alkyl=ethyl, E, and n-hexyl, nHex) MnTE-2-PyP(5+) (AEOL10113, FBC-007) and MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) have proven efficacious in numerous in vivo animal models of diseases having oxidative stress in common. The remarkable therapeutic efficacy observed is due to their: (1) ability to catalytically remove O2(•-) and ONOO(-) and other reactive species; (2) ability to modulate redox-based signaling pathways; (3) accumulation within critical cellular compartments, i.e., mitochondria; and (4) ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. The similar redox activities of both compounds are related to the similar electronic and electrostatic environments around the metal active sites, whereas their different bioavailabilities are presumably influenced by the differences in lipophilicity, bulkiness, and shape. Both porphyrins are water soluble, but MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) is approximately 4 orders of magnitude more lipophilic than MnTE-2-PyP(5+), which should positively affect its ability to pass through biological membranes, making it more efficacious in vivo at lower doses. To gain insight into the in vivo tissue distribution of Mn porphyrins and its impact upon their therapeutic efficacy and mechanistic aspects of action, as well as to provide data that would ensure proper dosing regimens, we conducted comprehensive pharmacokinetic (PK) studies for 24h after single-dose drug administration. The porphyrins were administered intravenously (iv), intraperitoneally (ip), and via oral gavage at the following doses: 10mg/kg MnTE-2-PyP(5+) and 0.5 or 2mg/kg MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+). Drug levels in plasma and various organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, brain) were determined and PK parameters calculated (Cmax, C24h, tmax, and AUC). Regardless of high water solubility and pentacationic charge of these Mn porphyrins, they are orally available. The oral availability (based on plasma AUCoral/AUCiv) is 23% for MnTE-2-PyP(5+) and 21% for MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+). Despite the fivefold lower dose administered, the AUC values for liver, heart, and spleen are higher for MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) than for MnTE-2-PyP(5+) (and comparable for other organs), clearly demonstrating the better tissue penetration and tissue retention of the more lipophilic MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+).
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.