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Review
, 112 (2), 382-92

Cysteine Oxidative Posttranslational Modifications: Emerging Regulation in the Cardiovascular System

Affiliations
Review

Cysteine Oxidative Posttranslational Modifications: Emerging Regulation in the Cardiovascular System

Heaseung S Chung et al. Circ Res.

Abstract

In the cardiovascular system, changes in oxidative balance can affect many aspects of cellular physiology through redox-signaling. Depending on the magnitude, fluctuations in the cell's production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can regulate normal metabolic processes, activate protective mechanisms, or be cytotoxic. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have many effects including the posttranslational modification of proteins at critical cysteine thiols. A subset can act as redox-switches, which elicit functional effects in response to changes in oxidative state. Although the general concepts of redox-signaling have been established, the identity and function of many regulatory switches remains unclear. Characterizing the effects of individual modifications is the key to understand how the cell interprets oxidative signals under physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we review the various cysteine oxidative posttranslational modifications and their ability to function as redox-switches that regulate the cell's response to oxidative stimuli. In addition, we discuss how these modifications have the potential to influence other posttranslational modifications' signaling pathways though cross-talk. Finally, we review the increasing number of tools being developed to identify and quantify the various cysteine oxidative posttranslational modifications and how this will advance our understanding of redox-regulation.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Ox-PTMs on cysteine
A, Protective mode (Blue), from free thiol, modifications induced by small molecules: sulfhydration, S- nitrosylaion, S-glutahionylation (on bottom) and sulfenylation (in the middle). From sulfenic acid to reversible modifications: disulfide bond formation, sulfenylamide and S-glutathionylation. B, Non-protective/detrimental mode (red), irreversible modification: sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid as ROS level increases (bar on bottom). *: It has long been regarded this modification is irreversible but recently, there have been examples of enzymatic reduction including sulfiredoxin (Srx), which can reduce sulfinic acid in a subset of Peroxiredoxins (Prxs).
Figure 2
Figure 2. Overview of the SNO modified Cys residues
A, The distribution of the 359 modified sites identified based on different experimental protocols is described in the text. B, Distribution of modified sites identified per protein. C, The subcellular localization of modified proteins as determined by annotation in the Uniprot database.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Redox sensor proteins and redox switches
A, ATP synthase α subunit Cys 294 functions as a redox switch. In dyssynchronous heart failure (DHF), Cys294 of the α-subunit are S-glutathionylated, or inter-disulfide bonding occurs between Cys294 of alpha-subunits, as well as between Cys294 and Cys103 of the gamma-subunit. Cys cross-linking inhibits its ATP production, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) increases S-nitrosylation of ATP synthase at Cys294 of the alpha-subunit by reverse Cys cross-linking, along with recovered ATPase activity. B, Regulation of actin polymerization through S-glutathionylation of Cys374 of actin.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Redox sensor proteins and redox switches
A, ATP synthase α subunit Cys 294 functions as a redox switch. In dyssynchronous heart failure (DHF), Cys294 of the α-subunit are S-glutathionylated, or inter-disulfide bonding occurs between Cys294 of alpha-subunits, as well as between Cys294 and Cys103 of the gamma-subunit. Cys cross-linking inhibits its ATP production, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) increases S-nitrosylation of ATP synthase at Cys294 of the alpha-subunit by reverse Cys cross-linking, along with recovered ATPase activity. B, Regulation of actin polymerization through S-glutathionylation of Cys374 of actin.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Proposed schemes for indirect (A and B) and direct (C and D) regulation by Ox-PTM of other PTMs and, vice versa
A, Indirect regulation by Ox-PTM of other PTM (ex.phosphorylation).B, Indirect regulation by other PTM (ex.glycation) of Ox-PTM (proposed mechanism). C and D, Direct regulation (cross-talk) between Ox-PTM and other PTMs in the same protein (proposed mechanism).

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