Background: Timely primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred reperfusion strategy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, universal access is limited outside metropolitan centres and portends worse outcomes for rural patients. This study evaluates the outcomes of STEMI patients treated in a metropolitan and nonmetroplitan setting within Vital Heart Response, an integrated reperfusion program developed to reduce reperfusion delay in Central and Northern Alberta.
Methods: From October 2006 to March 2011, data on consecutive STEMI patients was prospectively recorded. Clinical characteristics, in-hospital management, and outcomes grouped by site of presentation are described.
Results: There were 1990 metropolitan and 1602 nonmetropolitan STEMI patients. Metropolitan were older (62.7 vs 60.4 years; P < 0.001) and had more: angina (21.2% vs 16.5%; P < 0.001), dyslipidemia (45.3% vs 39.6%; P = 0.001), and hypertension (49.9% vs 46.6%; P = 0.047). The reperfusion strategy for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan: primary PCI (57.4% vs 22.9%; P < 0.001), fibrinolysis (26.3% vs 61.2%; P < 0.001), and no reperfusion (16.3% vs 15.9%; P = 0.855). First medical contact to reperfusion was delayed in nonmetropolitan with fibrinolysis and PCI, 8 and 125 minutes. A rescue PCI or coronary angiography within 24 hours was completed in 41.4% and 46.2%, respectively. Nonmetropolitan patients had fewer deaths (4.1% vs 6.8%; P = 0.001) with no difference in the composite outcome (death, reinfraction, congestive heart failure, cardiogenic shock) (16.8% vs 15.1%; P = 0.161) or major bleeding (7.9% vs 8.0%; P = 0.951).
Conclusions: Systematic application of a pharmacoinvasive strategy appears to be safe and effective for patients in whom a delay in mechanical reperfusion is anticipated.
Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.