Randomized placebo-controlled intervention with n-3 LC-PUFA-supplemented yoghurt: effects on circulating eicosanoids and cardiovascular risk factors

Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct;32(5):686-96. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2012.12.010. Epub 2012 Dec 28.


Background & aims: The study examined the value of n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched yogurt as means of improving cardiovascular health.

Design: Fifty three mildly hypertriacylglycerolemic subjects (TAG ≥ 1.7 mmol/L) participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel designed study. The subjects consumed 1) control yoghurt; 2) yoghurt enriched with 0.8 g n-3 LC-PUFA/d; or 3) yoghurt enriched with 3 g n-3 LC-PUFA/d for a period of 10 wks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and the end of the study period.

Results: Following daily intake of 3 g n-3 LC-PUFA for 10 weeks, n-3 LC-PUFA levels increased significantly in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) with concomitant increase in the EPA-derived mediators (PGE₃, 12-, 15-, 18-HEPE) in plasma whilst cardiovascular risk factors such as HDL, TAG, AA/EPA ratio, and n-3 index were improved (P < 0.05); the decrease of TAG and increase in HDL were associated with the CD36 genotype.

Conclusion: The observed increase of n-3 LC-PUFA in RBC and plasma lipids due to intake of n-3 LC-PUFA enriched yoghurt resulted in a reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory mediators showing that daily consumption of n-3 PUFA enriched yoghurt can be an effective way of supplementing the daily diet and improving cardiovascular health.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01244048.

Keywords: 17S-HDHA; 17S-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid; AA; ALA; BF(3); Blood lipids; CAD; CHD; CLA; COX; CRP; CYP450; Cytokines; DGLA; DHA; Dairy products; EPA; Eicosanoids; FAME; FFP; Food Frequency Protocol; HDL; HEPE; HETE; HETrE; HODE; IFN; IL; LA; LDL; LOX; LPS; LT; MUFA; OC; PG; PL; PPAR; RBC; RRs; Rv; SFA; SNPs; SREBPs; TAG; TBX; TC; TLC; TNFα; VLDL; arachidonic acid; boron trifluoride; c-reactive protein; conjugated linoleic acids; coronary artery diseases; coronary heart disease; cyclooxygenase; cytochrome P450 monooxygenases; dihomo-γ-linolenic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid; fatty acid methyl esters; high density lipoprotein; hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid; hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid; hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid; hydroxy-octadecaenoic acid; interferon; interleukin; leukotrienes; linoleic acid; lipopolysaccharide; lipoxygenase; low density lipoprotein; monounsaturated fatty acids; n-3 LC-PUFA; n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; osteoclast; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor; plasma lipids; prostaglandins; red blood cells; relative ratios; resolvin; saturated fatty acids; single nucleotide polymorphisms; sterol regulatory element-binding proteins; thin layer chromatography; thromboxanes; total cholesterol; triacylglycerides; tumor necrosis factor alpha; very low density lipoprotein; α-linolenic acid.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • CD36 Antigens / genetics
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Eicosanoids / blood*
  • Eicosanoids / metabolism
  • Erythrocytes / metabolism
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / administration & dosage
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / blood
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Food, Fortified*
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Germany / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertriglyceridemia / diet therapy*
  • Hypertriglyceridemia / genetics
  • Hypertriglyceridemia / metabolism
  • Hypertriglyceridemia / physiopathology
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / blood
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Lipoproteins, HDL / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Yogurt*


  • CD36 Antigens
  • Eicosanoids
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Lipoproteins, HDL

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01244048