Objectives: This study sought to determine whether known genetic, drug, dietary, compliance, and lifestyle factors affecting clopidogrel absorption and metabolism fully account for the variability in clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
Background: Platelet inhibition by clopidogrel is highly variable. Patients with reduced inhibition have increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. Identification of factors contributing to clopidogrel's variable response is needed to improve platelet inhibition and reduce risk for cardiovascular events.
Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 160; ages 20 to 53 years; homozygous CYP2C19 extensive metabolizer genotype; no nicotine for 6 weeks, prescription drugs for 4 weeks, over-the-counter drugs for 2 weeks, and no caffeine or alcohol for 72 h; confined; restricted diet) received clopidogrel 75 mg/day for 9 days, at which time clopidogrel pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic endpoints were measured.
Results: At steady-state, clopidogrel active metabolite (clopidogrel(AM)) pharmacokinetics varied widely between subjects (coefficients of variation [CVs] 33.8% and 40.2% for clopidogrel(AM) area under the time-concentration curve and peak plasma concentration, respectively). On-treatment vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein P2Y(12) platelet reactivity index (PRI), maximal platelet aggregation (MPA) to adenosine phosphate, and VerifyNow P2Y12 platelet response units (PRU) also varied widely (CVs 32% to 53%). All identified factors together accounted for only 18% of intersubject variation in pharmacokinetic parameters and 32% to 64% of intersubject variation in PRI, MPA, and PRU. High on-treatment platelet reactivity was present in 45% of subjects.
Conclusions: Clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics vary widely despite rigorous exclusion or control of known disease, polymorphisms (CYP2C19, CYP3A5, ABCB1, PON1), noncompliance, co-medications, diet, smoking, alcohol, demographics, and pre-treatment platelet hyperreactivity. Thus, as yet unidentified factors contribute to high on-treatment platelet reactivity with its known increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. (A Study of the Effects of Multiple Doses of Dexiansoprazole, Lansoprazole, Omeprazole or Esomeprazole on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Clopidogrel in Healthy Participants: NCT00942175).
Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.