Trends in length of stay, functional outcomes, and discharge destination stratified by disease type for inpatient rehabilitation in Singapore community hospitals from 1996 to 2005

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Jul;94(7):1342-1351.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.01.006. Epub 2013 Jan 17.


Objective: To determine the trends in length of stay (LOS), rehabilitation functional outcome, and discharge destination of patients admitted for inpatient rehabilitation from 1996 to 2005 and stratified by disease in Singapore.

Design: Retrospective national data were extracted from medical records of community-based inpatient rehabilitation admissions in Singapore from 1996 to 2005.

Setting: Four community hospitals.

Participants: There were 12,506 first admissions for rehabilitation; 40.6% were for stroke, 30.4% for fracture, 2.9% for lower limb (LL) joint replacement, 2.3% for LL amputation, 1.9% for cancer, 1.8% for falls, 1.6% for pneumonia, and 18.5% for other illnesses. The overall mean age ± SD was 73.2±11.5 years.

Interventions: Not applicable.

Main outcome measures: LOS, rehabilitation outcomes (rehabilitation effectiveness [R-effectiveness], rehabilitation efficiency [R-efficiency], relative functional efficiency [Relative-FE]), and discharge destination.

Results: The overall median LOS for all disease groups decreased by 16.2% (37 to 31d) from 1996 to 2005. The sharpest decline in LOS among the 8 disease groups was observed in the LL amputation group. The overall mean ± SD admission and discharge activities of daily living scores were 45.6±25.7 and 60.3±28.9, respectively; median R-effectiveness was 28.8%, median R-efficiency was 12.9/30d, and median Relative-FE was 27.7%/30d. From 1996 to 2005, mean R-effectiveness increased by 184% (14% to 40%), R-efficiency increased by 104% (9 to 19 units/30d), and Relative-FE increased by 145% (21% to 51%/30d). Among all inpatient admissions, most were discharged home (78.2%), 10.9% were discharged to an acute hospital, and 9.8% were discharged to nursing or sheltered homes, with no significant change during the 10-year period.

Conclusions: Rehabilitation outcomes of patients admitted to Singapore's community hospitals have improved between 1996 and 2005 despite a decreasing LOS. Discharge destinations have largely remained unchanged over this period.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Hospitals, Community / trends*
  • Humans
  • Length of Stay / trends*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Discharge / trends*
  • Physical Therapy Specialty / trends*
  • Recovery of Function
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Singapore
  • Socioeconomic Factors