This randomized blind crossover study compared serum lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations in 20 men consuming 37-43% of energy as fat from diets based on corn oil, high-oleic acid sunflower oil, and butter. Each phase of the crossover design included 2 wk of butter-based diet followed by 5 wk of designated vegetable-oil-based diet with a 7-wk washout period between phases. Compared with values for the butter-based diet, the vegetable-oil-based diets reduced serum total cholesterol by 16-21% (p less than 0.001), LDL cholesterol by 21-26% (p less than 0.001), triglycerides by 10-21% (p less than 0.01 for the higher figure), and apolipoprotein B-100 by 22-29% (p less than 0.001). When values fell, they fell further on the corn-oil-based diet. There were no significant changes in serum HDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein A-1. These data suggest that when men on diets high in saturated fatty acids reduce their saturated fatty acid intake but not their total fat intake, many can still experience a significant lowering in serum total cholesterol.