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. 2013 Jan 22;8:16.
doi: 10.1186/1749-8090-8-16.

Effects of Temporary Vascular Occluder Poloxamer 407 Gel on the Endothelium

Free PMC article

Effects of Temporary Vascular Occluder Poloxamer 407 Gel on the Endothelium

Arif Gucu et al. J Cardiothorac Surg. .
Free PMC article

Erratum in

  • J Cardiothorac Surg. 2014;9(1):18. Bozkurt, Onder [added]


Background: Coronary occlusion techniques during OPCAB may lead to an endothelial damage to the target vessel. The adverse effects of these techniques are well-known, and researches have been trying to find out new materials to occlude the coronary artery without an endothelial damage. In the present study, we investigate to the endothelial damage in the rat aorta which is occluded by Poloxamer 407 gel.

Methods: Forty-five rats were randomized in three groups: (1) segment of the aorta was occluded with Poloxamer 407 gel in P 407 group; (2) segment of the aorta was occluded with microvascular clamp in MV clamp group; and (3) no onclusion was available in the Control group. The rats were sacrificed of observation, and a 15mm segment of the aorta was obtained as a specimen. Integrity of the endothelial lining was observed with a scanning electron microscopy.

Results: Scanning electron microscopy revealed a statistically significant difference among the 3 groups (p<0,001) using the SPSS 13.0 test. No difference was found between the Control group and the P 407 group (p=0,059). The differences between MV clamp-Control group (p<0,001) and MV clamp-P 407 group were statistically significant (p<0,002).

Conclusions: We suggest that Poloxamer 407 gel occlusion may be a safer and more effective method compared to the microvascular clamp occlusion.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Scanning electron micrograph of the P 407 group. The endothelial cells were intact. Blood cells and fibrin were observed adhered to the endothelial surface. The nuclei of the endothelial cells were prominent.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Scanning electron micrograph of the P 407 group. In 4 samples, endothelial cells were in contact which each other, but the flattening endothelial cells and decreased in diameter was detected. Other blood cells observed in adhesion to endothelium, damage was evaluated as type 1.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Scanning electron micrograph of the P 407 group. In one sample, minimal detachment between the endothelial cells was observed. Damage was evaluated as type 2.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Scanning electron micrograph of the MV clamp group. In this sample, detachment of the endothelial cells and patchy areas of peeling subendothelial tissue were observed. Damage was evaluated type 3.

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