Background: Fluid overload is frequently present in CAPD patients and one of important predictors of mortality. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors in a cohort study of Southern Chinese CAPD patients.
Methods: The patients (receiving CAPD 3 months and more) in our center were investigated from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess the patient's body composition and fluid status.
Results: A total of 307 CAPD patients (43% male, mean age 47.8±15.3 years) were enrolled, with a median duration of PD 14.6 (5.9-30.9) months. Fluid overload (defined by Extracellular water/Total body water (ECW/TBW)≥0.40) was present in 205 (66.8%) patients. Univariate analysis indicated that ECW/TBW were inversely associated with body mass index (r = -0.11, P = 0.047), subjective global assessment score (r = -0.11, P = 0.004), body fat mass (r = -0.15, P = 0.05), serum albumin (r = -0.32, P<0.001), creatinine (r = -0.14, P = 0.02), potassium (r = -0.15, P = 0.02), and residual urine output (r = -0.14, P = 0.01), positively associated with age (r = 0.27, P<0.001), Chalrlson Comorbidity Index score (r = 0.29, P<0.001), and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.22, P<0.001). Multivariate linear regression showed that lower serum albumin (β = -0.223, P<0.001), lower body fat mass (β = -0.166, P = 0.033), old age (β = 0.268, P<0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (β = 0.16, P = 0.006), less residual urine output (β = -0.116, P = 0.042), and lower serum potassium (β = -0.126, P = 0.03) were independently associated with higher ECW/TBW. After 1 year of follow-up, the cardiac event rate was significantly higher in the patients with fluid overload (17.1% vs 6.9%, P = 0.023) than that of the normal hydrated patients.
Conclusions: The prevalence of fluid overload was high in CAPD patients. Fluid overload in CAPD patients were independently associated with protein-energy wasting, old age, and decreased residual urine output. Furthermore, CAPD patients with fluid overload had higher cardiac event rate than that of normal hydrated patents.