Hippurate: the natural history of a mammalian-microbial cometabolite

J Proteome Res. 2013 Apr 5;12(4):1527-46. doi: 10.1021/pr300900b. Epub 2013 Mar 6.


Hippurate, the glycine conjugate of benzoic acid, is a normal constituent of the endogenous urinary metabolite profile and has long been associated with the microbial degradation of certain dietary components, hepatic function and toluene exposure, and is also commonly used as a measure of renal clearance. Here we discuss the potential relevance of hippurate excretion with regard to normal endogenous metabolism and trends in excretion relating to gender, age, and the intestinal microbiota. Additionally, the significance of hippurate excretion with respect to disease states including obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, impaired renal function, psychological disorders and autism, as well as toxicity and parasitic infection, are considered.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Animals
  • Atherosclerosis / metabolism
  • Autistic Disorder / metabolism
  • Benzoic Acid / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus / urine
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / metabolism
  • Gene-Environment Interaction
  • Glycine / metabolism
  • Hippurates / metabolism*
  • Hippurates / urine*
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Intestines / microbiology
  • Male
  • Mammals
  • Microbiota*
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Sex Factors
  • Species Specificity


  • Hippurates
  • Benzoic Acid
  • Glycine