Immunolocalization of water channel aquaporins in human knee articular cartilage with intact and early degenerative regions

Med Mol Morphol. 2013 Jun;46(2):104-8. doi: 10.1007/s00795-013-0014-3. Epub 2013 Jan 24.


Aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channel proteins expressed in various cells and tissues, serve as physiological pathways of water and small solute transport. Articular cartilage is avascular tissue with unique biomechanical structure, a major component of which is "water". Our objective is to investigate the immunolocalization and expression pattern changes of AQPs in articular cartilage with normal and early degenerative regions in the human knee joint, which is the joint most commonly involved in osteoarthritis (OA). Two isoforms (AQPs 1 and 3) of AQPs were examined by immunohistochemical analyses using isoform-specific antibodies with cartilage samples from OA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. AQP 1 and AQP 3 were expressed in human knee articular cartilage and were localized in chondrocytes, both in the intact and early degenerative cartilage regions. Compared to the intact cartilage, both AQP 1 and AQP 3 immunopositive cells were observed at the damaged surface area in the degenerative region. These findings suggest that these AQPs play roles in metabolic water regulation in articular cartilage of load bearing joints and that they are responsible for OA onset.

MeSH terms

  • Aquaporin 1 / chemistry
  • Aquaporin 1 / isolation & purification*
  • Aquaporin 1 / metabolism
  • Aquaporin 3 / chemistry
  • Aquaporin 3 / isolation & purification*
  • Aquaporin 3 / metabolism
  • Aquaporins / chemistry
  • Aquaporins / isolation & purification
  • Cartilage, Articular / physiopathology
  • Cartilage, Articular / ultrastructure*
  • Chondrocytes / metabolism
  • Chondrocytes / pathology
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / metabolism
  • Knee Joint / ultrastructure
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee / metabolism
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee / physiopathology*


  • AQP1 protein, human
  • AQP3 protein, human
  • Aquaporins
  • Aquaporin 1
  • Aquaporin 3