Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in diabetes requires broad-based treatment of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The independent contribution of all combinations of risk factor control to CVD risk has not been evaluated.
Objective: To estimate the independent association of control of glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with risk of cardiovascular disease hospitalization.
Design: Non-concurrent longitudinal cohort study.
Patients: The study included 26,636 patients with type 2 diabetes who were members of an integrated group model HMO with multiple A1C, SBP, and LDL-C measurements.
Main measures: Patients were followed for a mean (SD) of 5.6 (2.5) years until they died or disenrolled, or until 31 December 2010. The outcome was a first-observed CVD hospitalization. Using the mean of all A1C, SBP, and LDL-C measures during follow-up, we created dichotomous categories of A1C control (< 7 %), SBP control (< 130 mmHg), and LDL-C control (< 100 mg/dL) to estimate the incidence rate of CVD hospitalization associated with all combinations of risk factor control adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics.
Key results: Patients with no controlled risk factors (18.2/1,000 person-years, 95 % CI 16.5-20.2) or with only A1C in control (16.9, 15.0-19.0) had the highest rate of CVD hospitalization, whereas those with all three risk factors controlled (7.2, 6.2-8.4) or with SBP and LDL-C in control (6.1, 5.1-7.2) had the lowest rates. Those with only SBP or LDL-C in control, A1C and SBP controlled, or A1C and LDL-C controlled had statistically similar incidence between the highest and lowest rates.
Conclusions: Maintaining SBP < 130 mmHg or LDL-C < 100 mg/dL was significantly associated with reduced CVD hospitalization risk, especially when both risk factors were well controlled. Maintaining A1C < 7 % was not independently associated with reduced CVD hospitalization risk.