Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy: an update

Front Med. 2013 Mar;7(1):60-4. doi: 10.1007/s11684-013-0246-6. Epub 2013 Jan 23.


Digital clubbing, which has been recognized as a sign of systemic disease, is one of the most ancient diseases. However, the pathogenesis of clubbing and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy has hitherto been poorly understood. The study of a clinically indistinguishable idiopathic form (primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, PHO) provides an opportunity to understand the pathogenesis of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Current advances in the study of PHO are discussed. The impaired metabolism of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a central role in its pathogenesis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Dinoprostone / metabolism*
  • Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic* / complications
  • Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic* / diagnosis
  • Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic* / drug therapy
  • Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic* / metabolism
  • Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic* / physiopathology
  • Osteoarthropathy, Secondary Hypertrophic* / diagnosis
  • Osteoarthropathy, Secondary Hypertrophic* / etiology
  • Osteoarthropathy, Secondary Hypertrophic* / metabolism
  • Osteoarthropathy, Secondary Hypertrophic* / physiopathology
  • Osteogenesis
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Dinoprostone