Histone H4 Lysine 20 Methylation: Key Player in Epigenetic Regulation of Genomic Integrity

Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Mar 1;41(5):2797-806. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt012. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

Abstract

Maintenance of genomic integrity is essential to ensure normal organismal development and to prevent diseases such as cancer. Nuclear DNA is packaged into chromatin, and thus genome maintenance can be influenced by distinct chromatin environments. In particular, post-translational modifications of histones have emerged as key regulators of genomic integrity. Intense research during the past few years has revealed histone H4 lysine 20 methylation (H4K20me) as critically important for the biological processes that ensure genome integrity, such as DNA damage repair, DNA replication and chromatin compaction. The distinct H4K20 methylation states are mediated by SET8/PR-Set7 that catalyses monomethylation of H4K20, whereas SUV4-20H1 and SUV4-20H2 enzymes mediate further H4K20 methylation to H4K20me2 and H4K20me3. Disruption of these H4K20-specific histone methyltransferases leads to genomic instability, demonstrating the important functions of H4K20 methylation in genome maintenance. In this review, we explain molecular mechanisms underlying these defects and discuss novel ideas for furthering our understanding of genome maintenance in higher eukaryotes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle
  • Chromatin / metabolism
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA Replication
  • Epigenesis, Genetic*
  • Genomic Instability*
  • Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase / metabolism
  • Histones / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Lysine / metabolism*
  • Methylation
  • Tumor Suppressor p53-Binding Protein 1

Substances

  • Chromatin
  • Histones
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • TP53BP1 protein, human
  • Tumor Suppressor p53-Binding Protein 1
  • Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
  • Lysine