A novel standardized bone model for thermal evaluation of bone osteotomies with various irrigation methods

Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014 May;25(5):622-31. doi: 10.1111/clr.12090. Epub 2013 Jan 24.


Objectives: Based on a novel standardized bovine specimen, the aim of this study was to investigate thermal effects of different irrigation methods during intermittent and graduated drilling.

Material and methods: Temperature changes during implant osteotomies (n = 320) of 10 and 16 mm drilling depths with various irrigation methods were investigated on manufactured uniform bone samples providing homogenous cortical and cancellous areas and analogous thermal conductivity comparable to human bone. Automated sequences were performed with surgical twist drills of 2 mm ∅ and conical drills of 3.5, 4.3 and 5 mm ∅. Real-time recording of temperature increase was done using two custom-built multichannel thermoprobes with 14 temperature sensors at a predefined distance of 1 and 2 mm to the final osteotomy. The effects of drilling depth, drilling diameter and irrigation methods on temperature changes were investigated by a linear mixed model.

Results: Using this uniform bone specimen, the greatest temperature rise was observed without any coolant supply with 29.87°C, followed by external with 28.47°C and then internal with 25.86°C and combined irrigation with 25.68°C. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.0156) between drill depths of 10 vs. 16 mm could be observed with all irrigation methods evaluated. With each of the irrigation methods, significantly higher temperature changes (P < 0.0001) during osteotomies could be observed between twist drills of 2 mm ∅ and conical drills of 3.5, 4.3 and 5 mm ∅. During 10 and 16 mm drilling osteotomies, external irrigation showed significantly higher temperatures (P < 0.05) for all conical drills compared with internal or combined irrigation, respectively. Significantly lower temperatures (P < 0.05) could be detected with internal or combined irrigation for the use of conical drills with various diameters and drilling depths.

Conclusions: This fully standardized bone model provides optimized comparability for the evaluation of bone osteotomies and resulting temperature changes. As regards the efficiency of the various irrigation methods, it could be demonstrated that internal and combined irrigation appears to be more beneficial than external irrigation.

Keywords: combined irrigation; dental implants; external irrigation; heat generation; implant drills; implant osteotomies; internal irrigation; multiple temperature sensors; standardized testing specimen; thermal osteonecrosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Substitutes / chemistry*
  • Cattle
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Osteotomy*
  • Temperature
  • Therapeutic Irrigation*
  • Thermal Conductivity*


  • Bone Substitutes