Anaesthesia for positron emission tomography scanning of animal brains

Lab Anim. 2013 Jan;47(1):12-8. doi: 10.1258/la.2012.011173. Epub 2013 Jan 24.


Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a means of studying physiological and pharmacological processes as they occur in the living brain. Mice, rats, dogs, cats, pigs and non-human primates are often used in studies using PET. They are commonly anaesthetized with ketamine, propofol or isoflurane in order to prevent them from moving during the imaging procedure. The use of anaesthesia in PET studies suffers, however, from the drawback of possibly altering central neuromolecular mechanisms. As a result, PET findings obtained in anaesthetized animals may fail to correctly represent normal properties of the awake brain. Here, we review findings of PET studies carried out either in both awake and anaesthetized animals or in animals given at least two different anaesthetics. Such studies provide a means of estimating the extent to which anaesthesia affects the outcome of PET neuroimaging in animals. While no final conclusion can be drawn concerning the 'best' general anaesthetic for PET neuroimaging in laboratory animals, such studies provide findings that can enhance an understanding of neurobiological mechanisms in the living brain.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia / methods
  • Anesthesia / veterinary*
  • Anesthetics / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Blood Volume
  • Brain / blood supply
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Brain / pathology*
  • Laboratory Animal Science / methods
  • Neuroimaging / methods
  • Neuroimaging / veterinary
  • Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • Positron-Emission Tomography / veterinary*
  • Regional Blood Flow / drug effects
  • Synaptic Transmission / drug effects


  • Anesthetics