Aims: To examine the role of baseline depression, anxiety and stress symptoms on post-intervention diabetes self-efficacy and glycaemic control (HbA(1c)).
Methods: The current study analysed data from patients (n = 85) with treated but uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes who participated in a comparative effectiveness study of two diabetes self-management interventions. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the relationships between baseline affective symptoms and post-intervention diabetes self-efficacy and the moderating effects of baseline affective symptoms on the relationship between changes in diabetes self-efficacy and post-intervention HbA(1c).
Results: Baseline depression was inversely associated with post-intervention diabetes self-efficacy (P = 0.0001) after adjusting for baseline characteristics including diabetes self-efficacy. In contrast, normal-mild levels of stress were associated with higher post-intervention diabetes self-efficacy (P = 0.04). Anxiety and stress symptoms significantly and independently moderated the relationship between changes in diabetes self-efficacy and post-intervention HbA(1c) (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). Further evaluation of these interactions demonstrated that changes in diabetes self-efficacy were associated with lower post-intervention HbA(1c), but only among those with higher baseline affective symptoms.
Conclusions: We found a moderating effect across affective symptoms on the relationship between diabetes self-efficacy changes and post-intervention HbA1c in the context of a self-management intervention. Results suggest that patients with poorly controlled diabetes who have higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms may derive greater benefits from self-management interventions known to improve diabetes self-efficacy.
© 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.