Alleviative effects of deep-seawater drinking water on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidation induced by a high-fat diet

J Chin Med Assoc. 2013 Feb;76(2):95-101. doi: 10.1016/j.jcma.2012.10.008. Epub 2012 Dec 29.


Background: Hepatic steatosis is defined as excessive amounts of triglyceride and other fats inside liver cells and has become an emergent liver disease in developed and developing countries.

Methods: Deep seawater (DSW)300, DSW900, and DSW1500 drinking waters were formulated via a combination of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. Hamsters on a high-fat diet were assigned to drink the following solutions: (1) normal distilled water, (2) DSW300, (3) DSW900, or (4) DSW1500. Serum, liver, and fecal biochemical values, expression of hepatic genes related to fatty-acid homeostasis, as well as liver antioxidative levels were measured after a 6-week feeding period. Additionally, hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to investigate the liver histopathology.

Results: Serum/liver lipids, liver sizes, liver malondialdehyde content, and serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase of high-fat diet hamsters were reduced (p < 0.05) by drinking DSW, while daily fecal lipid and bile acid outputs were increased (p < 0.05). DSW drinking water maintained (p < 0.05) higher liver glutathione and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity levels. Although hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and malic enzyme gene expression were not (p > 0.05) altered, DSW drinking water upregulated (p < 0.05) hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, and uncoupling protein-2 gene expression in high-fat diet hamsters. The lipid droplets in livers were also reduced in DSW-drinking-water groups as compared to those only drinking distilled water.

Conclusion: DSW shows a preventive effect on development of hepatosteatosis induced by a high-fat diet.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cricetinae
  • Diet, High-Fat*
  • Drinking Water*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Lipid Metabolism*
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / analysis
  • Mesocricetus
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Seawater*


  • Drinking Water
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Glutathione