Implications of memory modulation for post-traumatic stress and fear disorders

Nat Neurosci. 2013 Feb;16(2):146-53. doi: 10.1038/nn.3296. Epub 2013 Jan 28.


Post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and phobia manifest in ways that are consistent with an uncontrollable state of fear. Their development involves heredity, previous sensitizing experiences, association of aversive events with previous neutral stimuli, and inability to inhibit or extinguish fear after it is chronic and disabling. We highlight recent progress in fear learning and memory, differential susceptibility to disorders of fear, and how these findings are being applied to the understanding, treatment and possible prevention of fear disorders. Promising advances are being translated from basic science to the clinic, including approaches to distinguish risk versus resilience before trauma exposure, methods to interfere with fear development during memory consolidation after a trauma, and techniques to inhibit fear reconsolidation and to enhance extinction of chronic fear. It is hoped that this new knowledge will translate to more successful, neuroscientifically informed and rationally designed approaches to disorders of fear regulation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Extinction, Psychological
  • Fear / psychology
  • Humans
  • Learning
  • Memory / physiology*
  • Nerve Net / pathology
  • Nerve Net / physiopathology
  • Neural Pathways / pathology
  • Neural Pathways / physiopathology
  • Panic Disorder* / pathology
  • Panic Disorder* / physiopathology
  • Panic Disorder* / psychology
  • Phobic Disorders* / pathology
  • Phobic Disorders* / physiopathology
  • Phobic Disorders* / psychology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / pathology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / physiopathology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / psychology