First clinical experiences with the organ care system (OCS) in lung transplantation showed that this device allows perfusion and ventilation of the lungs under practically physiological conditions. Some pulmonary pathologies necessitate ex situ operations, e.g. to avoid pneumonectomy. The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of ex situ pulmonary surgery within the OCS.In the first procedure a large tracheobronchial leakage was covered with a pericardial patch. The procedure was authorized by the local committee of animal welfare. In the second surgery a replacement of the distal trachea using an aortic graft was performed after removal of the heart-lung segment from a pig from the slaughterhouse. The postoperative ventilation of both lungs was free of problems. The mean pressure of the pulmonary artery remained steady during the whole experiment. The setup to prevent lung edema was basically successful.Performing thoracic surgery with the OCS is feasible; however, this approach is reserved for very special indications. Further investigations to optimize technical details of the OCS setup for this purpose are necessary.