Mixed vaginitis-more than coinfection and with therapeutic implications

Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2013 Apr;15(2):104-8. doi: 10.1007/s11908-013-0325-5.


Mixed vaginitis is due to the simultaneous presence of at least two vaginal pathogens, both contributing to an abnormal vaginal milieu and, hence, symptoms and signs of vaginitis. In mixed vaginitis, both pathogens require specific therapy for complete eradication of concurrent manifestations. In coinfection, although two pathogens are identified, a potential pathogen may be present but may not be a cause of existing vaginal symptoms. Although data remain sparse, mixed vaginitis occurs rarely (<5 %). By contrast, pathogen coinfection occurs frequently in women with vaginitis. Approximately 20 %-30 % of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) are coinfected with Candida species. Coexistence of BV pathogens and T. vaginalis is even more common, with coinfection rates of 60 %-80 %. Both coinfection and mixed vaginitis have significant clinical and therapeutic implications and are worthy of further investigation.