Primary central nervous system histiocytic sarcoma presenting as a postradiation sarcoma: case report and literature review

Hum Pathol. 2013 Jun;44(6):1177-83. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2012.11.002. Epub 2013 Jan 26.

Abstract

Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare neoplasm that occurs most commonly in the intestinal tract, skin, soft tissue, and lymph node. The incidence of primary central nervous system (CNS) HS is even rarer, with a total of 6 cases reported in the literature. An etiologic link has not been identified for CNS HS, and the current case of primary CNS HS is unique in that an etiologic link to prior radiation therapy is identified, associated with complex cytogenetic abnormalities in the tumor. Although radiation-associated sarcomas can present as any number of different pathologic entities, this is the first reported case of a radiation-associated CNS HS. The pathologic and immunophenotypic characteristics of this case, with a nearly obscuring heavy inflammatory infiltrate and expression of monocytic/histiocytic markers (CD163, CD68, CD4, fascin), are characteristic of CNS HS. A discussion of the differential diagnosis and review of relevant literature are presented.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / radiotherapy
  • Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / surgery
  • Histiocytic Sarcoma / diagnosis*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis*
  • Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis*
  • Pinealoma / radiotherapy
  • Pinealoma / surgery

Substances

  • Biomarkers, Tumor