Receptors for the neuropeptides, myoinhibitory peptide and SIFamide, in control of the salivary glands of the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis

Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Apr;43(4):376-87. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2013.01.002. Epub 2013 Jan 26.


Tick salivary glands are important organs that enable the hematophagous feeding of the tick. We previously described the innervation of the salivary gland acini types II and III by a pair of protocerebral salivary gland neurons that produce both myoinhibitory peptide (MIP) and SIFamide (Šimo et al., 2009b). In this study we identified authentic receptors expressed in the salivary glands for these neuropeptides. Homology-based searches for these receptors in the Ixodes scapularis genome sequence were followed by gene cloning and functional expression of the receptors. Both receptors were activated by low nanomolar concentrations of their respective ligands. The temporal expression patterns of the two ligands and their respective receptors suggest that the SIFamide signaling system pre-exists in unfed salivary glands, while the MIP system is activated upon initiation of feeding. Immunoreactivity for the SIFamide receptor in the salivary gland was detected in acini types II and III, surrounding the acinar valve and extending to the basal region of the acinar lumen. The location of the SIFamide receptor in the salivary glands suggests three potential target cell types and their probable functions: myoepithelial cell that may function in the contraction of the acini and/or the control of the valve; large, basally located dopaminergic granular cells for regulation of paracrine dopamine; and neck cells that may be involved in the control of the acinar duct and its valve.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Arthropod Proteins / chemistry
  • Arthropod Proteins / genetics
  • Arthropod Proteins / metabolism*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Ixodes / chemistry
  • Ixodes / classification
  • Ixodes / genetics
  • Ixodes / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism
  • Phylogeny
  • Rabbits
  • Receptors, Neuropeptide / chemistry
  • Receptors, Neuropeptide / genetics
  • Receptors, Neuropeptide / metabolism*
  • Salivary Glands / chemistry
  • Salivary Glands / metabolism
  • Sequence Alignment


  • Arthropod Proteins
  • Neuropeptides
  • Receptors, Neuropeptide