Efficient genome editing in zebrafish using a CRISPR-Cas system

Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Mar;31(3):227-9. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2501. Epub 2013 Jan 29.


In bacteria, foreign nucleic acids are silenced by clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)--CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems. Bacterial type II CRISPR systems have been adapted to create guide RNAs that direct site-specific DNA cleavage by the Cas9 endonuclease in cultured cells. Here we show that the CRISPR-Cas system functions in vivo to induce targeted genetic modifications in zebrafish embryos with efficiencies similar to those obtained using zinc finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • CRISPR-Cas Systems
  • DNA / genetics
  • DNA Cleavage
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian
  • Endonucleases / genetics
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Genome*
  • Inverted Repeat Sequences*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Nucleic Acid Conformation
  • RNA Editing
  • RNA, Small Untranslated
  • Zebrafish / genetics*


  • DNA
  • Endonucleases
  • RNA, Small Untranslated