Gender differences in the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with vasospastic angina--a report from the Japanese Coronary Spasm Association

Circ J. 2013;77(5):1267-74. doi: 10.1253/circj.cj-12-1486. Epub 2013 Jan 31.


Background: Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the gender differences in the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with ischemic heart disease. However, it remains to be elucidated whether it is also the case for vasospastic angina (VSA).

Methods and results: We enrolled a total of 1,429 VSA patients (male/female, 1090/339; median age 66 years) in our nationwide multicenter registry by the Japanese Coronary Spasm Association. As compared with male patients, female patients were characterized by older age (median 69 vs. 66 years), lower incidence of smoking (20% vs. 72%) and less significant organic stenosis (9% vs. 16%) (all P=0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were considerably different by genders; women were more associated with age and electrical abnormalities, whereas men with structural abnormalities. Overall 5-year MACE-free survival was comparable between both genders. However, when the patients were divided into 3 groups by age [young (<50 years), middle-aged (50-64 years) and elderly (≥65 years)], the survival was significantly lower in the young female group (young 82%, middle-aged 92%, elderly 96%, P<0.01), where a significant interaction was noted between age and smoking. In contrast, the survival was comparable among the 3 age groups of male patients.

Conclusions: These results indicate that there are gender differences in the characteristics and outcomes of VSA patients, suggesting the importance of gender-specific management of the disorder.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Angina Pectoris / diagnosis
  • Angina Pectoris / epidemiology*
  • Angina Pectoris / mortality
  • Angina Pectoris / physiopathology
  • Angina Pectoris / therapy
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / epidemiology
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Stenosis / epidemiology
  • Coronary Vasospasm / diagnosis
  • Coronary Vasospasm / epidemiology*
  • Coronary Vasospasm / mortality
  • Coronary Vasospasm / physiopathology
  • Coronary Vasospasm / therapy
  • Female
  • Health Status Disparities*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Registries
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Time Factors