Purpose: Increased mitogenic signaling and angiogenesis, frequently facilitated by somatic activation of EGF receptor (EGFR; ErbB1) and/or loss of PTEN, and VEGF overexpression, respectively, drive malignant glioma growth. We hypothesized that patients with recurrent glioblastoma would exhibit differential antitumor benefit based on tumor PTEN/EGFRvIII status when treated with the antiangiogenic agent pazopanib and the ErbB inhibitor lapatinib.
Experimental design: A phase II study evaluated the antitumor activity of pazopanib 400 mg/d plus lapatinib 1,000 mg/d in patients with grade 4 malignant glioma and known PTEN/EGFRvIII status not receiving enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants (EIAC). The phase II study used a two-stage Green-Dahlberg design for futility. An independent, parallel phase I component determined the maximum-tolerated regimen (MTR) of pazopanib and lapatinib in patients with grade 3/4 glioma receiving EIACs.
Results: The six-month progression-free survival (PFS) rates in phase II (n = 41) were 0% and 15% in the PTEN/EGFRvIII-positive and PTEN/EGFRvIII-negative cohorts, respectively, leading to early termination. Two patients (5%) had a partial response and 14 patients (34%) had stable disease lasting 8 or more weeks. In phase I (n = 34), the MTR was not reached. On the basis of pharmacokinetic and safety review, a regimen of pazopanib 600 mg plus lapatinib 1,000 mg, each twice daily, was considered safe. Concomitant EIACs reduced exposure to pazopanib and lapatinib.
Conclusions: The antitumor activity of this combination at the phase II dose tested was limited. Pharmacokinetic data indicated that exposure to lapatinib was subtherapeutic in the phase II evaluation. Evaluation of intratumoral drug delivery and activity may be essential for hypothesis-testing trials with targeted agents in malignant glioma.