Background: Some studies have reported associations between five uncoupling protein (UCP) 1-3 polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, other studies have failed to confirm the associations. This paper describes a case-control study and a meta-analysis conducted to attempt to determine whether the following polymorphisms are associated with T2DM: -3826A/G (UCP1); -866G/A, Ala55Val and Ins/Del (UCP2) and -55C/T (UCP3).
Methods: The case-control study enrolled 981 T2DM patients and 534 nondiabetic subjects, all of European ancestry. A literature search was run to identify all studies that investigated associations between UCP1-3 polymorphisms and T2DM. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were calculated for allele contrast, additive, recessive, dominant and co-dominant inheritance models. Sensitivity analyses were performed after stratification by ethnicity.
Results: In the case-control study the frequencies of the UCP polymorphisms did not differ significantly between T2DM and nondiabetic groups (P>0.05). Twenty-three studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results showed that the Ala55Val polymorphism was associated with T2DM under a dominant model (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.03-1.57); while the -55C/T polymorphism was associated with this disease in almost all genetic models: allele contrast (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.34), additive (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.01-1.72) and dominant (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.37). However, after stratification by ethnicity, the UCP2 55Val and UCP3 -55C/T alleles remained associated with T2DM only in Asians (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.51 and OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.44, respectively; allele contrast model). No significant association of the -3826A/G, -866G/A and Ins/Del polymorphisms with T2DM was observed.
Conclusions: In our case-control study of people with European ancestry we were not able to demonstrate any association between the UCP polymorphisms and T2DM; however, our meta-analysis detected a significant association between the UCP2 Ala55Val and UCP3 -55C/T polymorphisms and increased susceptibility for T2DM in Asians.