Redox-inflammatory synergy in the metabolic syndrome

Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 Jan;91(1):22-30. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-2012-0295. Epub 2013 Jan 28.


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises interrelated disease states including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Essential to normal physiological function, and yet massively damaging in excess, oxidative stress and inflammation are pivotal common threads among the pathologies of MetS. Increasing evidence indicates that redox and inflammatory dysregulation parallels the syndrome's physiological, biochemical, and anthropometric features, leading many to consider the pro-oxidative, pro-inflammatory milieu an unofficial criterion in itself. Left unchecked, cross-promotion of oxidative stress and inflammation creates a feed-forward cycle that can initiate and advance disease progression. Such redox-inflammatory integration is evident in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance and T2DM, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and is thus hypothesized to be the "common soil" from which they develop. The present review highlights the synergistic contributions of redox-inflammatory processes to each of the components of the MetS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / immunology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation* / complications
  • Inflammation* / immunology
  • Inflammation* / metabolism
  • Metabolic Syndrome* / complications
  • Metabolic Syndrome* / immunology
  • Metabolic Syndrome* / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidative Stress*