Bifunctional bisphosphonates for delivering PTH (1-34) to bone mineral with enhanced bioactivity

Biomaterials. 2013 Apr;34(12):3141-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.01.059. Epub 2013 Jan 29.


The objective of this work was to demonstrate the bioactivity of parathyroid hormone (1-34) (PTH) delivered through a single molecule of bisphosphonate to improve tissue/cell interactions. Bifunctional hydrazine-bisphosphonates (HBPs) with varying length and lipophilicity were used as a drug delivery vehicle. PTH was oxidized with periodate treatment to obtain an N-terminal aldehyde that was then conjugated to HBPs. The toxicity and apoptotic properties of HBPs and HBP-PTH conjugates were studied with macrophages (RAW 264.7). It was found that one of the HBPs had significant apoptotic characteristics similar to alendronate, which is a widely prescribed drug in the treatment of osteoporosis. The improved binding affinity of PTH following conjugation to HBP was determined using a hydroxyapatite binding assay. The amount of PTH delivered to bone through HBPs was not affected by the length or lipophilicity of the HBPs. Furthermore, the improved bioactivity of PTH delivered to bone through HBPs, in comparison to adsorbed PTH, was demonstrated by quantifying the cAMP produced by pre-osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells in response to PTH. The delivery of bioactive PTH to bone tissue by HBP conjugation demonstrates the potential use of HBPs in delivering therapeutic macromolecules to bone for the treatment of several skeletal diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Bone and Bones / drug effects*
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Diphosphonates / administration & dosage*
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Mice
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Parathyroid Hormone / administration & dosage*


  • Diphosphonates
  • Parathyroid Hormone