Evaluation of in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of α-santalol and sandalwood oil

Phytomedicine. 2013 Mar 15;20(5):409-16. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.12.017. Epub 2013 Jan 29.


Sandalwood finds numerous mentions across diverse traditional medicinal systems in use worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of sandalwood oil and its major constituent α-santalol. The in vivo anti-hyperglycemic experiment was conducted in alloxan-induced diabetic male Swiss albino mice models. The in vivo antioxidant experiment was performed in d-galactose mediated oxidative stress induced male Swiss albino mice models. Intraperitoneal administration of α-santalol (100mg/kg BW) and sandalwood oil (1g/kg BW) for an week modulated parameters such as body weight, blood glucose, serum bilirubin, liver glycogen, and lipid peroxides contents to normoglycemic levels in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration of α-santalol (100mg/kg BW) and sandalwood oil (1g/kg BW) for two weeks modulated parameters such as serum aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, free sulfhydryl, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, liver lipid peroxide contents, and antioxidant capacity in d-galactose mediated oxidative stress induced mice. Besides, it was observed that the beneficial effects of α-santalol were well complimented, differentially by other constituents present in sandalwood oil, thus indicating synergism in biological activity of this traditionally used bioresource.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alloxan / adverse effects
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use*
  • Bilirubin / blood
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / chemically induced
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / pathology
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Drug Synergism
  • Galactose / pharmacology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / chemistry
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Oils / chemistry
  • Plant Oils / therapeutic use*
  • Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes
  • Protein Carbonylation / drug effects
  • Sesquiterpenes / administration & dosage
  • Sesquiterpenes / chemistry
  • Sesquiterpenes / therapeutic use*


  • Antioxidants
  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Plant Oils
  • Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes
  • Sesquiterpenes
  • santalol
  • Alloxan
  • Bilirubin
  • Galactose
  • sandalwood oil