Vitamin D acts to maintain calcium and phosphate homeostasis within the body. It is now estimated that 1 billion people worldwide are vitamin D deficient. This problem is particularly important to athletes of all ages, as vitamin D plays a significant role in bone health, immune function, and physical performance. In the deficient state, the athlete may be at an increased risk for potential problems such as stress fractures, respiratory infections, and muscle injuries. The purpose of this article is to examine vitamin D deficiency and review its relationship to the athlete.