Objective: To identify clinical factors associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and mortality in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).
Study design: A prospective cohort of neonates with a diaphragm defect identified at 1 of 7 collaborating medical centers was studied. Echocardiograms were performed at 1 month and 3 months of age and analyzed at a central core by 2 cardiologists independently. Degree of PH and survival were tested for association with clinical variables using Fischer exact test, χ(2), and regression analysis.
Results: Two hundred twenty patients met inclusion criteria. Worse PH measured at 1 month of life was associated with higher mortality. Other factors associated with mortality were need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, patients inborn at the treating center, and patients with a prenatal diagnosis of CDH. Interestingly, patients with right sided CDH did not have worse outcomes.
Conclusions: Severity of PH is associated with mortality in CDH. Other factors associated with mortality were birth weight, gestational age at birth, inborn status, and need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
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