Aims/hypothesis: Most pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus achieve HbA1c targets; however, macrosomia remains prevalent and better pregnancy glycaemic markers are therefore needed. 1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a short-term marker of glycaemia, reflecting a period of 1 to 2 weeks. Its excretion rate depends on the renal glucose threshold and thus it is unclear whether it may be used in pregnant type 1 diabetes women. We evaluated 1,5-AG as a glycaemic marker and birthweight predictor in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, and compared its performance with HbA1c.
Methods: 1,5-AG and HbA1c were measured in 82 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. In addition, 58 continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) records were available. Macrosomia was defined as birthweight >90th centile. The data were analysed with Pearson's correlations, and linear and logistic regression models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate third trimester 1,5-AG as a predictor of macrosomia.
Results: Unlike HbA1c, 1,5-AG strongly correlated with CGMS indices: the AUC above 7.8 mmol/l (r = -0.66; p < 0.001), average maximum glucose (r = -0.58; p < 0.001) and mean glucose (r = -0.54; p < 0.001). In the third trimester, 1,5-AG was the strongest predictor of macrosomia, with ROC AUC 0.81 (95% CI 0.70, 0.89). In contrast, HbA1c in the third trimester had a ROC AUC of 0.69 (95% CI 0.58, 0.81). The best discrimination was achieved when both markers were used jointly, yielding a ROC AUC of 0.84 (95% CI 0.76, 0.93).
Conclusions/interpretation: In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, 1,5-AG is a better glycaemic marker than HbA1c, as assessed by CGMS. A decreased third trimester 1,5-AG level, either singly or with HbA1c, is a strong predictor of macrosomia.