Background: The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index is associated with all-cause mortality in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is also associated with markers of inflammation and may thus reflect physiologic frailty. This analysis explores the association between physiologic frailty, as assessed by the VACS Index, and fragility fracture.
Methods: HIV-infected men from VACS were included. We identified hip, vertebral, and upper arm fractures using ICD-9-CM codes. We used Cox regression models to assess fragility fracture risk factors including the VACS Index, its components (age, hepatitis C status, FIB-4 score, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hemoglobin, HIV RNA, CD4 count), and previously identified risk factors for fragility fractures.
Results: We included 40 115 HIV-infected male Veterans. They experienced 588 first fragility fractures over 6.0 ± 3.9 years. The VACS Index score (hazard ratio [HR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.19), white race (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.63-2.28), body mass index (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, .92-.96), alcohol-related diagnoses (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.26-2.17), cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.14-3.33), proton pump inhibitor use (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.54-2.27), and protease inhibitor use (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.04-1.50) were associated with fracture risk. Components of the VACS Index score most strongly associated with fracture risk were age (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.27-1.54), log HIV RNA (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, .88-.94), and hemoglobin level (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, .78-.86).
Conclusions: Frailty, as measured by the VACS Index, is an important predictor of fragility fractures among HIV-infected male Veterans.