Guidance for diagnosis and treatment of DIC from harmonization of the recommendations from three guidelines

J Thromb Haemost. 2013 Feb 4. doi: 10.1111/jth.12155. Online ahead of print.


Three guidelines have recently been published for the diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in adults. This communication seeks to harmonize the recommendations in these guidelines using a modified GRADE system. The scoring system for diagnosis of DIC using global coagulation tests is known to correlate with key clinical observations and outcomes (Moderate quality). The cornerstone of DIC treatment is the treatment of the underlying condition (Moderate quality). In general, transfusion of platelets or plasma (components) in patients with DIC should be reserved for patients who are bleeding (Low quality). Therapeutic doses of heparin should be considered in cases of DIC where clinical features of thrombosis predominate. Heparin is not recommended in those patients with a high risk of bleeding, (Moderate quality). However, prophylactic doses of unfractionated heparin or low molecular we ight heparin is recommended in critically ill and non-bleeding patients with DIC for prevention of venous thromboembolism (Moderate to High quality). Although further prospective evidence from randomized controlled trials is required, administration of antithrombin or recombinant thrombomodulin may be considered in certain patients with DIC. In general, patients with DIC should not be treated with antifibrinolytic agents (Low quality). However those who present with severe bleeding, that is characterized by a markedly hyperfibrinolytic state such as leukemia (Low quality) and trauma (Moderate quality), may be treated with antifibrinolytic agents. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.