Objectives: Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), a rare hereditary auto-inflammatory disease, is associated with mutations in the NLRP3 gene resulting in elevated interleukin-1β (IL-1 β) release. CAPS generally occurs in early childhood with most patients presenting with periodic fever, skin rash, osteoarthropathy, aseptic meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss and optic neuritis. Canakinumab, a fully human anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody which binds selectively to IL-1β, has demonstrated good efficacy with CAPS. This is the first study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of canakinumab in Japanese patients with CAPS.
Methods: In this open-label study, 19 Japanese CAPS patients aged ≥2 years received canakinumab either 150 mg s.c. or 2 mg/kg for patients with a body weight ≤ 40 kg every 8 weeks for 24 weeks. The primary objective was to assess the proportion of patients who were free of relapse at week 24.
Results: A complete response was achieved in 18 (94.7%) patients with some requiring a dose and/or a frequency adjustment to attain full clinical response. The majority of patients (14/18; 77.8%) were in remission, i.e. free of relapse at week 24. Auto-inflammatory disease activity as assessed by physician's global assessment declined from baseline to end of the study (score of absent in 10.5% at baseline versus 31.6% at end of the study). Two patients had serious adverse events (SAEs), which resolved with standard treatment. One patient reported a mild injection-site reaction. No malignancies or deaths were reported during the study.
Conclusions: Canakinumab 150 mg s.c. every 8 weeks was well-tolerated, highly efficacious and offered a convenient dosing regimen for treating Japanese patients with CAPS.