Purpose of review: The pathogenesis of HIV infection is highly complex and involves numerous actors of the immune system. On the one hand, our immunity has a predominant role in limiting HIV replication and the depletion of its targets, but on the other hand, the persistent infection established by the virus is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation, potentially resulting in the progressive exhaustion of the host immune resources, and in the onset of non-AIDS-defining comorbidities. The thorough study of HIV pathogenesis is increasingly more challenging.
Recent findings: New knowledge together with technological advances offers the possibility to monitor a constellation of cellular immune markers. Here, we discuss the relevance of studying these markers in order to assess the efficacy to control HIV, the inflammatory response to HIV infection, and the alteration and exhaustion of the immune compartments.
Summary: Monitoring these cellular immune markers is important to reach a deeper understanding of HIV pathogenesis and to perform a comprehensive clinical follow-up of HIV-infected patients.