Structure, transcription and post-transcriptional regulation of the bread wheat orthologs of the barley cleistogamy gene Cly1

Theor Appl Genet. 2013 May;126(5):1273-83. doi: 10.1007/s00122-013-2052-6. Epub 2013 Feb 5.


The majority of genes present in the hexaploid bread wheat genome are present as three homoeologs. Here, we describe the three homoeologous orthologs of the barley cleistogamy gene Cly1, a member of the AP2 gene family. As in barley, the wheat genes (designated TaAP2-A, -B and -D) map to the sub-telomeric region of the long arms of the group 2 chromosomes. The structure and pattern of transcription of the TaAP2 homoeologs were similar to those of Cly1. Transcript abundance was high in the florets, and particularly in the lodicule. The TaAP2 message was cleaved at its miR172 target sites. The set of homoeolog-specific PCR assays developed will be informative for identifying either naturally occurring or induced cleistogamous alleles at each of the three wheat homoeologs. By combining such alleles via conventional crossing, it should be possible to generate a cleistogamous form of bread wheat, which would be advantageous both with respect to improving the level of the crop's resistance against the causative pathogen of fusarium head blight, and for controlling pollen-mediated gene flow to and from genetically modified cultivars.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial
  • Chromosomes, Plant / chemistry
  • Chromosomes, Plant / genetics*
  • Flowers / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Genome, Plant
  • Hordeum / genetics*
  • Hordeum / growth & development
  • Hordeum / metabolism
  • MicroRNAs / genetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Phylogeny
  • Plant Proteins / genetics*
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Plant / genetics
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Triticum / genetics*
  • Triticum / growth & development
  • Triticum / metabolism


  • Biomarkers
  • MicroRNAs
  • Plant Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Plant