The risk of peritonitis after an exit site infection: a time-matched, case-control study

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2013 Jul;28(7):1915-21. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gft002. Epub 2013 Feb 3.


Background: Exit site infections (ESIs) have been previously associated with the development of peritonitis; however, the evidence to support this association is limited. We conducted a time-matched, case-control study to determine the association between ESIs and subsequent peritonitis.

Methods: The cohort comprised 962 incident adult peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients from January 2000 to December 2009. Patients with an ESI were matched to those with no ESI based on the duration of PD. The subsequent risk of peritonitis was determined using Cox models and conditional logistic regression.

Results: During the study period, there were a total of 1002 ESI and 1228 peritonitis episodes among 962 individuals. The time to subsequent peritonitis was shorter in individuals who had at least one ESI [hazard ratio (HR) 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-2.07, P<0.001]. The risk of peritonitis post-ESI was increased for all Gram-positive infections [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.75; 95% CI 1.25-2.43], and for the subtypes of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) and S. aureus, but not for Gram-negative or culture-negative infections. These findings were similar when examining the odds of subsequent peritonitis within prespecified time intervals of the ESI through conditional logistic regression.

Conclusions: The risk of peritonitis after ESI is increased, particularly with S. aureus and CNS, despite appropriate antibiotic treatment of the ESI.

Keywords: case–control; exit site infection; matched; peritoneal dialysis; peritonitis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Catheter-Related Infections / epidemiology
  • Catheter-Related Infections / microbiology*
  • Catheters, Indwelling / adverse effects*
  • Coagulase / deficiency
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / microbiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Peritoneal Dialysis / adverse effects*
  • Peritonitis / diagnosis
  • Peritonitis / etiology*
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Staphylococcal Infections / complications*
  • Staphylococcal Infections / microbiology
  • Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification*
  • Survival Rate
  • Time Factors


  • Coagulase