Effect of gum arabic on oxidative stress and inflammation in adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats

PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55242. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055242. Epub 2013 Feb 1.


Inflammation and oxidative stress are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease in humans, and in chronic renal failure (CRF) in rats. The aim of this work was to study the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in adenine-induced CRF and the effect thereon of the purported nephroprotective agent gum arabic (GA). Rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks as follows: control, adenine in feed (0.75%, w/w), GA in drinking water (15%, w/v) and adenine+GA, as before. Urine, blood and kidneys were collected from the rats at the end of the treatment for analysis of conventional renal function tests (plasma creatinine and urea concentration). In addition, the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the oxidative stress markers glutathione and superoxide dismutase, renal apoptosis, superoxide formation and DNA double strand break frequency, detected by immunohistochemistry for γ-H2AX, were measured. Adenine significantly increased the concentrations of urea and creatinine in plasma, significantly decreased the creatinine clearance and induced significant increases in the concentration of the measured inflammatory mediators. Further, it caused oxidative stress and DNA damage. Treatment with GA significantly ameliorated these actions. The mechanism of the reported salutary effect of GA in adenine-induced CRF is associated with mitigation of the adenine-induced inflammation and generation of free radicals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenine / adverse effects*
  • Animals
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Gum Arabic / pharmacology*
  • Gum Arabic / therapeutic use
  • Histones / metabolism
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation / etiology
  • Interleukin-10 / blood
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / chemically induced*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / pathology
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Urea / blood


  • Histones
  • Phosphoproteins
  • gamma-H2AX protein, rat
  • Interleukin-10
  • Urea
  • Gum Arabic
  • Creatinine
  • Adenine

Grant support

This work was financially supported by a grant from the Research Council of Oman (RC/Med/Phar/10/01), and the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU), by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, grant SCHU 2367/1-2 und the University of Würzburg. The publication of this work was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the University of Wuerzburg in the funding programme Open Access Publishing. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.