Biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of celiac disease

J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013 Apr;47(4):308-13. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e31827874e3.


Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder, which damages the small intestine and is caused by ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The only known effective treatment is a lifelong gluten-free diet. Genetic risk factors have been identified and nearly all patients are HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 positive. Specific autoantibodies, IgA antitissue transglutaminase-2, antiendomysium, and antideaminated forms of gliadin peptide antibodies, are widely used as diagnostic aids in celiac patients. However, the discovery of new biomarkers may help in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease. Recently, the molecule REG Iα, involved in tissue regeneration, has been proposed as a new biomarker of CD. REG Iα expression is increased in the target tissue and in the sera of celiac patients during damage and inflammation, decreasing after gluten-free diet. In this article we review the main biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of CD, focusing on the immune response-related mechanisms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoantibodies / blood*
  • Autoimmunity
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Celiac Disease / blood
  • Celiac Disease / diagnosis*
  • Celiac Disease / diet therapy
  • Celiac Disease / genetics
  • Celiac Disease / immunology
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Genetic Markers
  • HLA-DQ Antigens / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Lithostathine / blood*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Autoantibodies
  • Biomarkers
  • Genetic Markers
  • HLA-DQ Antigens
  • HLA-DQ2 antigen
  • HLA-DQ8 antigen
  • Lithostathine
  • REG1A protein, human