Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the ampicillin plus ceftriaxone (AC) and ampicillin plus gentamicin (AG) combinations for treating Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (EFIE).
Methods: An observational, nonrandomized, comparative multicenter cohort study was conducted at 17 Spanish and 1 Italian hospitals. Consecutive adult patients diagnosed of EFIE were included. Outcome measurements were death during treatment and at 3 months of follow-up, adverse events requiring treatment withdrawal, treatment failure requiring a change of antimicrobials, and relapse.
Results: A larger percentage of AC-treated patients (n = 159) had previous chronic renal failure than AG-treated patients (n = 87) (33% vs 16%, P = .004), and AC patients had a higher incidence of cancer (18% vs 7%, P = .015), transplantation (6% vs 0%, P = .040), and healthcare-acquired infection (59% vs 40%, P = .006). Between AC and AG-treated EFIE patients, there were no differences in mortality while on antimicrobial treatment (22% vs 21%, P = .81) or at 3-month follow-up (8% vs 7%, P = .72), in treatment failure requiring a change in antimicrobials (1% vs 2%, P = .54), or in relapses (3% vs 4%, P = .67). However, interruption of antibiotic treatment due to adverse events was much more frequent in AG-treated patients than in those receiving AC (25% vs 1%, P < .001), mainly due to new renal failure (≥25% increase in baseline creatinine concentration; 23% vs 0%, P < .001).
Conclusions: AC appears as effective as AG for treating EFIE patients and can be used with virtually no risk of renal failure and regardless of the high-level aminoglycoside resistance status of E. faecalis.