Morphometric analyses of normal pediatric brachial biceps and quadriceps muscle tissue

Histol Histopathol. 2013 Apr;28(4):525-30. doi: 10.14670/HH-28.525. Epub 2013 Feb 8.


Pediatric normal brachial biceps (14 specimens) and quadriceps muscles (14 specimens) were studied by immunohistochemistry to quantify fiber-type, diameter and distribution, capillary density, presence of inflammatory cells (CD3, CD20, CD68) and expression of neonatal myosin and MHC class 1 proteins. Brachial biceps showed more fast-twitch fibers and lower capillary/fiber ratio than quadriceps. The mean diameter of both fiber types was smaller in biceps than quadriceps. Fast-fibers were smaller than slow-fibers, and capillary/fiber ratio was < 1.0 in both muscles. Fiber size and capillary / fiber ratio increased with age. Normal limits for infiltrating haematopoietic cells were <4 T lymphocytes, or CD68+ cells, very few B cells, < 6 neonatal myosin positive fibers, and no fibers MHC class 1 positive in one x20 field, for both muscles. The present comparison of quantitative findings between brachial biceps and quadriceps may allow standardization of the assessment of pathological changes in both pediatric muscles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Antigens, CD / analysis
  • Antigens, CD20 / analysis
  • Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / analysis
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Biopsy
  • CD3 Complex / analysis
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / analysis
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch / chemistry
  • Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch / chemistry
  • Muscle, Skeletal / anatomy & histology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / chemistry
  • Myosins / analysis
  • Organ Size
  • Quadriceps Muscle / anatomy & histology*
  • Quadriceps Muscle / chemistry
  • Reference Values


  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, CD20
  • Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic
  • Biomarkers
  • CD3 Complex
  • CD68 antigen, human
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
  • Myosins